34. Ashura Day

FASTING ON THE DAY OF 'ASHURA (10TH OF MOHARRAM)


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Fasting on Moharram 10, known as the Day of 'Ashura', expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (saws) was in Mecca he found that Quraish used to fast on the day of 'Ashura in the pre-Islamic days and the Messenger ot Allah (saws) also observed it.

When the Prophet (saws) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews fasted on Moharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said," This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] who fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah." The Prophet (saws) said,  "We are closer to Musa than you are." He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. The Messenger of Allah (saws) also said: When the next year comes, Insha Allah, we would observe fast on the 9th But the Messenger of Allah (saws) died before the advent of the next year. Since it was a desire of the prophet the followers do observe fast on 9th of Moharram as a sunnah. However, 10th of Moharram remains fasting day of Ashura and 9th of Moharram fast will be an additional fast . 

I could not find any authentic Hadis for fasting on 11th of Moharram.If someone finds it, then please let me know  along with name of Hadis book, its book number and hadis number etc. at " arifrk43@gmail.com"

The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of 'Ashura' became optional.   

The Prophet (saws) said, "Fasting the day of 'Ashura'  Allah will accept it as an expiation for minor sins committed in the previous year."  But this expiation of minor sins comes only if you avoid major sins. It is a big mistake to rely on fasting a single day to "wipe your minor sins" If you neglect your daily Prayers or the fast of Ramadan, or if you backbite, lie, commit adultery or other major sins, fasting on 'Ashura' alone will not apologise you. The Ahadith (Ahadis) mentioned below support the above views.

Book 006,  Sahih Muslim :

Hadis No. : 2499

Hazrat 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Quraish used to fast on the day of 'Ashura in the pre-Islamic days and the Messenger ot Allah (may peace be upon him) also observed it. When he migrated to Medina, he himself observed this fast and commanded (others) to observe it. But when fasting during the month of Ramadan was made obligatory he said: He who wishes to observe this fast may do so, and he who wishes to abandon it may do so.

Hadis Number : 2502

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had ordered to observe fast (on 'Ashura) before the fasting in Ramadan was made obligatory. But when it became obligatory, then he who wished fasted on the day of Ashura, and he who wished did not observe it (on that day).

Hadis Number : 2503

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Quraish used to observe fast on the day of Ashura during the pre-Islamic days. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upog him) then commanded to fast on that day till (fasting) in Ramadan became obligatory. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who wished to fast should do so. and he who wished to break it may do so.

Hadis Number : 2504

Abdullah b. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that (the Arabs of) pre-Islamic days used to observe fast on the day of Ashura and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed it and the Muslims too (observed it) before fasting in Ramadan became obligatory. But when it became obligatory, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: 'Ashura is one of the days of Allah, so he who wished should observe fast and he who wished otherwise should abandon it.

Hadis  Number : 2518

Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported that when Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to Medina, he found the Jews observing the fast on the day of Ashura. They (the Jews) were asked about it and they said: It is the day on which Allah granted victory to Moses and (his people) Bani Isra'il over the Pharaoh and we observe fast out of gratitude to Him. Upon this the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: We have a closer connection with Moses than you have, and he commanded to observe fast on this day.

Hadis  Number : 2528

 Ibn 'Abbas reported that when the Messenger of Allah (saws) fasted on the day of 'Ashura and commanded that it should he observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him: Messenger of Allah, it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem. Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (saws) said: When the next year comes, God willing, we would observe fast on the 9th But the Messenger of Allah (saws) died before the advent of the next year. 

Hadis  Number : 2529

Abdullah b 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (saws) had said: If I live till the next (year), I would definitely observe fast on the 9th, and the narration transmitted by Abu Bakr is:" He meant the day of Ashura." 

 

Book No.31  Sahaih Bukhari

Hadis No.116

 Narrated Ibn 'Umar: The Prophet observed the fast on the 10th of Muharram ('Ashura), and ordered (Muslims) to fast on that day, but when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, the fasting of the 'Ashura' was abandoned. 'Abdullah did not use to fast on that day unless it coincided with his routine fasting by chance. 

Hadis no. 117

Narrated 'Aisha: (The tribe of) Quraish used to fast on the day of Ashura' in the Pre-lslamic period, and then Allah's Apostle ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet said, "He who wants to fast (on 'Ashura') may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast." 

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