Creation of Human Being & Evolution Theory


The Quran confirms that man is the climax of creation. According to the Quran, man is a unique creation of Allah and his gifted qualities are unmatched by any other living being. The Quran also says that all the other living objects have originated from water and man from clay. Following verses of Holy Quran give details of how man was created.


Surah No.2 ,Al Baqr ,Ayats No.30 to 34


إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا

مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ o إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

o عَلَى الْمَلاَئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَـؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

o قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ

o إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

o وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ


Translation :


When Your Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent (A deputy appointed by the ruler) on earth."

They said: "Will You place there one who will make mischief and shed blood?- while we do celebrate Your praises and glorify Your holy (name)?"

He said: "I know what you do not know."

And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if you are right."

They said: "Glory to You, we have no knowledge except what you have given us. In reality it is You Who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom."

He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what you disclose and what you hide?"

And when, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down except Iblis: he refused and he became unbeliever.


Comments :


 Right from day one, superiority of Adam (The first Man) was established by Allah. This was mainly because of the knowledge of various things provided to him. The first lesson given to Adam, regarding the knowledge of names of various things, was in fact the start of the learning process. Please note that the same is still continuing, as man has taken knowledge to great heights. In the present era, the people are well aware about the human gains and the utilization of new technology by the man in different fields. 

In the Holy Quran, Allah has given various indicators to guide man to think and act. The believers, in addition to their religious obligations, they took advantage of these indicators and their scientists had derived full benefits from it. Their contribution in various fields in commendable. Please note that the contribution of the following Muslim Scientists in different fields should always be the source of inspiration for the young generation. Following are the Muslim scientists and their contribution in various fields. 

Jabir Ibn Haiyan is known as the father of chemistry died in 803 C.E. and his major contribution was in the field of chemistry includes perfection of scientific techniques such as crystalization, distillation, calcination, sublimation and evaporation.


Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi was born at Khawarizm (Kheva) who died in 804 C.E. He was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians. His work on algebra was outstanding, which had established him as the founder of Algebra. The name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah. He explained the use of zero and also developed the decimal system.


Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi was born at Kufa around 800 C.E. and died in 873 C.E. He was a philosopher, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, physician, geographer and even an expert in music. He had contributed to spherical geometry to assist in astronomical studies.


Al-Battani al-Harrani was born around 858 C.E and died in 929 C.E. He was a famous astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. His well-known discovery is the accurate determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds, which is very close to the latest estimates.


Al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (known in the west as Abulcasis) was born in 936 C.E. and died in 1013 C.E. He was one of the most renowned surgeons of the Muslim era and was physician to King Al-Hakam-II of Spain. He wrote three books on surgery based on the operations performed by him, including cauterization, removal of stone from the bladder, dissection of animals, midwifery, stypics, and surgery of eye, ear and throat. He perfected several delicate operations, including removal of the dead foetus and amputation.


Ibn Ismail al-Buzjani was born in Buzjan, Nishapur in 940 C.E. and died in 997 C.E. In geometry his contribution comprises solution of geometrical problems with opening of the compass; construction of a square equivalent to other squares; regular polyhedra; construction of regular hectagon taking for its side half the side of the equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle; constructions of parabola by points and geometrical solution of the equations :


x4 = a and x4 + ax3 = b


Abul Wafa's contribution to the development of trigonometry was extensive. He was the first to show the generality of the sine theorem relative to spherical triangles. He developed a new method of constructing sine tables, the value of sin 30' being correct to the eighth decimal place. He also developed relations for sine (a+b) and the formula:


2 sin2 (a/2) = 1 - cos a , and

sin a = 2 sin (a/2) cos (a/2)


Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was one of the well-known figures associated with the court of King Mahmood Ghaznawi , Al-Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who was born in 973 C.E. and died in 1048 C.E. Al-Biruni, and Abu Nasr Mansur, who are thought to have first derived the Cosine rule (law in trignometry) and applied it to spherical geometry.


Omar Khayyam was born at Nishapur, the provincial capital of Khurasan around 1044 C.E. and died in 1123 C.E. Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, physician and poet, he is commonly known as Omar Khayyam. He made an attempt to classify most algebraic equations, including the third degree equations and, in fact, offered solutions for a number of them. His book Maqalat fi al-Jabr wa al-Muqabila is a master- piece on algebra and has great importance in the development of algebra. Apart from being a scientist, Khayyam was also a well-known poet.


Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr was born at Seville in 1091 C.E. and died in 1161 C.E. He was one of the greatest physicians and clinicians of the Muslim golden era. As a physician, he made several discoveries and breakthroughs. He described correctly, for the first time, scabies, the itch mite and may thus be regarded as the first parasitologist. He also gave clinical descriptions of mediastinal tumours, intestinal phthisis, inflammation of the middle ear, pericarditis, etc.


Ibn Idris al-Qurtubi al-Hasani, was bom in Ceuta, Spain, in 1099 C.E. and died in 1166 C.E. His major contribution lies in medicinal plants as presented in his several books, specially Kitab al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat. He studied and reviewed all the literature on the subject of medicinal plants. Apart from botany and geography, Idrisi also wrote on fauna, zoology and therapeutical aspects.


Ahmad Zewail was born on February 26, 1946 in Damanhour (60km south-east of Alexandria). Zewail's key work has been as the pioneer of femtochemistry—i.e. the study of chemical reactions across femtoseconds. In 1999, Zewail became the third ethnic Egyptian to receive the Nobel Prize.



 Surah No. 7, Al Araf, Ayats No. 11 to 25
 
 

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلآئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَoقَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍoقَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَoقَالَ فَأَنظِرْنِي إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَoقَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ المُنظَرِينَoقَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَoثُمَّ لآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَآئِلِهِمْ وَلاَ تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَoقَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْؤُومًا مَّدْحُورًا لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لأَمْلأنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَoوَيَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلاَ مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَoفَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْءَاتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَoوَقَاسَمَهُمَا إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ النَّاصِحِينَoفَدَلاَّهُمَا بِغُرُورٍ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْءَاتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ وَنَادَاهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا أَلَمْ أَنْهَكُمَا عَن تِلْكُمَا الشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُل لَّكُمَا إِنَّ الشَّيْطَآنَ لَكُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌoقَالاَ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَoقَالَ اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَى حِينٍoقَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَo


 
Translation :


We have created you and gave you shape; then We asked the angels bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; not so Iblis; He refused to be of those who bow down.

(Allah) said: "What prevented you from bowing down when I commanded you?" He said: "I am better than he: You did create me from fire, and him from clay."

(Allah) said: "Get down from here: it is not for you to be arrogant here: get out, you are the meanest ."

He said: "Give me respite till the day they are raised up ."

(Allah) said: " Go, you are given respite."

He said: "Because you have thrown me out of the way, I will sit in wait against them on their straight path :

"Then I will assault them from the front and from behind, from their right and from their left: Then You will not find,most of them thankful to you (for Your mercies)."

(Allah) said: "Get out from here , disgraced and expelled. If any of them follow you- I will fill Hell with you all.

"O Adam! dwell you and your wife in the Garden, and enjoy (its good things) as you wish: but do not approach this tree, otherwise you will harm to yourselves ."

Then Shaitan began to whisper suggestions to them, bringing to uncover their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said: "why Your Lord only prevent you this tree from you, only because, you may become angels or become immortal."

And he swore to them, that he was their sincere adviser.

So by cunning he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became open to them, and they began to cover their bodies with the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them: "Did I not forbid you that tree, and tell you that Shaitan was an avowed (declared) enemy to you?"

They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: If You do not forgive us and do not grant Your Mercy upon us, we shall certainly be lost."

(Allah) said: " You get down. You shall be enemy to one another. Earth will be your residing-place and your means of livelihood,- for a short time."

He (Allah) said: "There you shall live, and there you shall die ; Then from it, you shall be raised again ."


Surah No.23 ,Al Muminoon , Ayats No.12 to 16

 

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن طِينٍoثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاهُ نُطْفَةً فِي قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍoثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَoثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ لَمَيِّتُونَoثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ تُبْعَثُونَo

Translation :

 

 And We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth). Thereafter We placed him (the offspring of Adam) as a Sperm (Nutfah) in a safe place of rest (Uterus of the woman). Then We made the Sperm into a clot (coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that, the bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So Blessed is Allâh, the Best of creators. After that, surely, you will die. Then surely, you will be raised up again on the Day of Resurrection.

 

Comments :

 

EVOLUTION  V/S  CREATION


The process of evolution



The process of evolution involves a series of natural changes that cause species of different organisms to arise, adapt to the environment, and become extinct. 

Evolution occurs when there is change in the genetic material.

Information contained in the DNA can change by a process,  known as mutation. The way particular genes are expressed – that is, how they influence the body or behaviour of an organism -- Evolution does not change any single individual. Parents pass adaptive genetic changes and these changes become common throughout a population. Over time, genetic change can alter a species' overall way of life, such as what it eats, how it grows, and where it can live.

Therefore it will be interesting to go through in detail  the theory of evolution and  the process of creation. After going through this document you will note that there is no clash between evolution and creation. The Glorified Almighty Allah had set the course of evolution by way of creation. As you read that whatever He Desires He Commands “ Be and it is” Once the universe came into existence and thereafter He created life from water  in the form of unicellular animal , it is then assumed that the course of evolution took different steps to evolve different species under various phylum. In how many years ? only Allah Knows.

Quran says in 21:30 ,

 “(It is Him) , Who created the earth in two days? He is the Lord of all beings of the Universe.  He set up firm mountains on it, blessed it,  and provided it with sustenance in proportion to the needs of all who seek (sustenance).  All this was done in four days.( Four days include the two days of the creation of the earth and two days for the creation of the rest of the things within the earth).  Then He turned to the heaven while it was all smoke.  He said to the heaven and the earth: “Come (into being), willingly or unwillingly.” They said: “Here we come (into being) in willingness.”  Then He made  seven heavens in two days and revealed to each heaven its law. And He decorated the lower heaven with lamps, and firmly secured it. All this is the firm plan of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing “

Heaven is meant for the whole universe.  By smoke, it is meant the initial and primary stage of matter, in which it lay diffused dust like condition before the formation of the universe. From the wording of the text, it appears that at first the whole universe was a single mass of matter; then it was split into different parts and the earth, the planets and the other heavenly bodies were formed. Scientists of the modern age describe the same thing as nebulae, and the same also is their view about the beginning of the universe: (Big bang theory). However, the materialists also  regard the existence  of universe as the product of blind material forces.

 It is also said in Quran that  whole universe was created by Allah in six days. At 

the same time he has not mentioned, when and how many years back this 

creation was performed .


But the geologists say that this had happened 4.6 billion years ago.  

To support the creation of universe it is like, when a tailor wants to make a shirt from a cloth , he first conceives in his mind the shape of the shirt, then arranging the cloth he tries to cut and sew it according to his concept of the shirt. Now consider Allah’s mode of creation. The matter of the universe lay scattered and diffused in the form of smoke like diffused matter to take the shape of the galaxies and stars and planets, which He wanted to create. Allah willed to give it the shape of the universe as it is now. For this purpose, He did not have to sit down, like a human artisan, and mould the earth and the moon and the sun and the other stars and planets, but He only commanded  “ Be “ and it is !

 Allah confirms His power He Say’s in various verses of Quran :

2: 117 ,  He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth; whenever He decrees a matter He (merely) says: “Be”, and it is.

(36:82) - Whenever He wills a thing, He just commands it “Be” and it is.

(21:33)-  It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Each of them is floating in its orbit

(36:40)- Neither does it lie in the sun's power to overtake the moon  nor can the night outstrip the day. All glide along, each in its own orbit.

(37:6) - We have decorated  the lower heaven with the decoration of the stars

(21:30) -  The heavens and the earth were one solid mass, then We tore them apart

Let us now  study the  Four Eras of the Geologic Time Scale. The geologists say : 

Precambrian Time started at the beginning of the Earth 4.6 billion years ago, and

 for billions of years, there was no life on the planet.


Creation of Life from Water :


Quran say’s :

(23:18) - We sent down water from the sky in right measure, and caused it to stay in the earth, and We have the power to  take it away .

(21:30) -  We made every living being out of water?  Will they, then, not believe  ?

(24:45) - Allah has created every animal from water. Of them some move on their bellies, some move on two legs and some on four. Allah creates whatever He wills. Surely Allah has power over everything.

Allah did not Say that life  come into existence  immediately after creation of universe. The principal blessings from Allah are the air and the water by which alone vegetable, animal life became possible on the earth.  It appears that Allah made water the cause and origin of life.

There is no consensus on how life arose or what life is. The origin of life is “one of the great unsolved mysteries of science” It wasn't until the end of Precambrian Time that single-cell organisms came into existence. No one is certain how life on Earth began, but three theories, (1) The Primordial Soup Theory,(2)  Hydrothermal Vent Theory, and (3) Panspermia Theory are in consideration in respect of existence of life.

(1)          The soup theory was proposed that UV radiation provided the energy to convert methane, ammonia and water into the first organic compounds in the oceans of the early earth. However,  without an energy source, life as we know it can't exist.

(2)         In rejecting the soup theory the team turned to the Earth's chemistry to identify the energy source which could power the first primitive predecessors of living organisms.  Geochemical gradients and  catalytic cells generated lipids, proteins and nucleotides which may have given rise to the first true cell. Thermodynamic constraints mean that chemiosmosis is strictly necessary for carbon and energy metabolism in all organisms that grow from simple chemical ingredients  presumably the first free-living cell." This was lacking.

(3)         Panspermia proposes that bodies such as comets transported life forms such as bacteria-complete with their DNA – through space to the earth. The discovery that the raw components of life are present throughout the universe suggests that life could exist elsewhere, and that the origin of life as we know it may have dependent on materials that arrived on earth via inter –stellar travel. Some scientists have speculated that life itself originated elsewhere and made its way on Earth.

(4)   The Darwinism could not scientifically explain how life originated on Earth.

 

The evolutionists’ claim that the universe started from “first atom” and life started from “first cell”.

 

Who created the atom and cell ? 

 

The evolutionists cannot answer. Inanimate matter must have produced a living cell as a result of coincidence is the belief of the evolutionists. Modern biologists have rejected this claim. Life comes from life has been proved. The theory of “spontaneous generation”, which asserts that non-living materials came together to form living organism has been rejected.  The conditions required for the formation of cell are too great in quantity to be explained away by coincidences.

The biochemical basis of the gene is Deoxyribonucleic Acid, in short DNA, which is confined in the nucleus and convey its orders through messenger RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) to the site of protein synthesis. Hundreds of biochemical reaction are taking place simultaneously  in the cytoplasm promoted by hundreds of enzymes in the same cytoplasm, and the beauty of the system is that one metabolic reaction does not interfere with other, all under control of DNA. There is a perfect order maintained by DNA, which is having  amino acids chain, arranged in a special sequence. It is therefore very clear that the DNA molecule is so complex that its existence cannot be accidental or coincidental.

 

Now,  this will be utmost important to know the theory of Evolution :

Darwin theory of Evolution

There are large number of scientists who believe in the theory of Evolution. In this context, Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, who had described that all species of life have evolved from common ancestor, through the process, he called natural selection. Darwin's Theory of Evolution is a slow gradual process. One should know that evolution is a change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Though the changes produced in any one generation are small, then these genetic changes accumulate with each subsequent generation and over a time frame, cause substantial changes in the organisms. Because of this process new species emerge. The similarities between organisms indicates that all known species are descended from a common ancestor. In short Darwin's Theory of Evolution says that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor:  He also introduced the concept of Natural Selection which he had derived from Malthus Essay's 'Principle of population'. Malthus advocated that population increases geometrically while food supply increases only at arithmetic rate. Consequently it leads to the death of poor through hunger, disease etc. This had led Darwin to evolve the concept of Natural selection and Survival of the Fittest. The theory of Natural Selection also advocated a mechanism which leads to the evolution of living beings. On the basis of fossils,  Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838.

Charles Darwin, in his books “The Origin of Species” (1859)  presented his theory of evolution. He presented the theory of the Mechanism of Natural Selection or survival of the fittest. Darwin believe in matter not in spirit. Darwin himself regarded his theory based on assumptions. Lamarck and Darwin believed in that transferring of traits of one species to the other. They maintain that living creatures passed on the traits they acquired during lifetime to the next generation. 

 

Modern Theory  of Evolution 

When Charles Darwin articulated his theory of evolution by natural selection in On 

the Origin of Species in 1859, he focused on adaptations. That concept was so 

powerful that we might assume evolution is all about adaptation. 

 But many scientists have argued that most evolutionary changes appear at the level 

of the genome and are essentially random and neutral.

According to the modern theory of evolution, the main mechanisms by which new 

species appear are mutations and the horizontal gene transport. It is assumed that

 mutations in a genome can be not only casual, but frequently represent 

rearrangements of blocks already available in the genome.

A genome contains of an Organism’s complete set of genetic instructions of an

 Organism.  It is therefore clear that each genome contains all of the information

 needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develope. 

Genome editing (also called gene editing) is a group of technologies that give scientists the ability to change an organism's DNA. These technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome. Several approaches to genome editing have been developed. A recent one is known as CRISPR-Cas9, which is short for CLUSTERED REGUALRLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS  and CRISPR-associated protein 9. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has generated a lot of excitement in the scientific community because it is faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more efficient than other existing genome editing methods.CRISPR-Cas9 was adapted from a naturally occurring genome editing system in bacteria.

In 1968, the famed population geneticist Motoo Kimura , a Japanese Biologist, resisted the adaptation  perspective with his neutral theory of molecular evolution. In a nutshell, he argued that an “appreciable fraction” of the genetic variation within and between species is the result of genetic drift — that is, the effects of randomness in a finite population — rather than natural selection, and that most of these differences have no functional consequences for survival and reproduction.

Quran Believing Muslims have a strong faith in Allah and His creation. Allah says in Quran that “ the life on earth is created by Him”  which cannot be accidental or by chance. 

And after creation of life from Water it was found that : 

Protists were a dominant form of life on Earth 1.5 billion years ago. While protozoans evolved early and have survived to the present day as unicellular organisms, (like Bacteria)

they have undoubtedly undergone considerable evolutionary change.

·      By the end of Precambrian time it was found the rise of a few more complex animals in the oceans, such as jellyfish. There was still no life on land. (eg. Box jellyfish, Scyphozoa-true jelly fish, Staurozoa- Stalked jelly fish, Some Hydrozoa- Small jelly fish

 

Porifera :

 Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera. They are multicellular organisms that have bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like  membrane  sandwiched between two thin layers of cells.

Sponges do not have nervous, digestive and circulatory systems. Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. Sponges were first to branch off  the evolutionary tree from the common ancestor of all animals, making them the  sister group of all other animals. 

 

The Paleozoic era  began with the Cambrian Period, 53 million years,  best known for ushering in an explosion of life on Earth. This "Cambrian explosion" included the evolution of arthropods .

 

In the Paleozoic Era, life flourished in the seas. After the Cambrian Period came the 

45-million-year Ordovician Period, which is marked in the fossil record by an

 abundance of marine invertebrates.  Tetrapods began laying eggs on land for the 

first time during this period, allowing them to break away from an amphibious 

lifestyle. Tetrapods were becoming more specialized, and two new groups of animals

 evolved. The first were marine reptiles, including lizards and snakes. The second 

were the archosaurs, which would give rise to crocodiles, dinosaurs and birds. Most 

creepily, this era is sometimes referred to as the "Age of the Cockroaches,"

Cnidaria :

Cnidaria is a phylum and its species  found only in aquatic and mostly marine 

environements . Cindaria have no organs like heart or lungs. They have an internal 

cavity used for respiration and gastrovascular cavity. Function like respiration and

 excretion occur by diffusion.

Cnidaria do not have a brain or groups of nerve cells ("ganglia"). The nervous system is a decentralized network. They do not have a head, but they have a mouth.

Nearly all cnidaria are predators.

Platyhelminthes :

Phylum Platyhelminthes, a group of soft-bodied  flatworm species are free-living, but about 80 percent of all flatworms are parasitic—i.e., living on or in another organism and securing nourishment from it. They  lack specialized respiratory, skeletal, and circulatory systems. The body is not segmented. organs.  Functional reproductive organs of both sexes occurring in one individual.  However it, indicates that flatworms are very primitive compared with other invertebrates. (such as Tape worms) 

Mesozoic Era: 250 Million to 65 Million Years Ago

wide variety of new species evolved and thrived during the Mesozoic Era, which is

 also known as the "age of the dinosaurs" since dinosaurs were the dominant species

 of the age.

The climate during the Mesozoic Era was very humid and tropical, and many lush,

 green plants sprouted all over the Earth. Dinosaurs started off small and grew

 larger as the Mesozoic Era went on. Herbivores thrived. Small mammals came into

 existence, and birds evolved from the dinosaurs.

Another mass extinction marked the end of the Mesozoic Era, whether triggered by a giant meteor or comet impact, volcanic activity, more gradual climate change, or various combinations of these factors. All the dinosaurs and many other animals, especially herbivores, died off, leaving niches to be filled by new species in the coming era.

Annelida :

 

Annelid, phylum name Annelida, also called segmented worm, any member of a phylum of invertebrate animals .

The phylum Annelida includes three main groups: the earthworms, the leeches, and the bristle worms. Annelids are found worldwide, and inhabit terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems .

 

 Each annelid segment contains units of the circulatory, nervous, and excretory systems. In the earthworms and bristle worms, but not the leeches.

 

Mollusca :

 

Mollusk, also spelled mollusc, any soft-bodied invertebrate of the phylum Mollusca, usually wholly or partly enclosed in a calcium carbonate shell secreted by a soft mantle covering the body. Some animals that you are familiar with like snails, octopuses, squids, oysters, clams etc. all belong to Phylum Mollusca. The phylum Mollusca is the second most diverse phylum after Arthropod  Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the arthropoda. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. They are highly diverse,

 

Arthropoda :

 

A large phylum of invertebrate animals that includes insects, spiders, crustaceans, and their relatives. They have a segmented body, an external skeleton, and jointed limbs.

An arthropod an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. (eg. Insects. Milpedes, Hexapods, Centipedes, Crabs and Scorpions etc.)

 

Cenozoic Era:   65 Million Years Ago to the Present

The final time period on the Geologic Time Scale is the Cenozoic Period. With large dinosaurs now extinct, smaller mammals that had survived were able to grow and become dominant.

The climate changed drastically over a relatively short period of time, becoming much cooler and drier than during the Mesozoic Era. An ice age covered most temperate parts of the Earth with glaciers, causing life to adapt relatively rapidly and the rate of evolution to increase.

All species of life—including humans—evolved into their present-day forms over the course of this era, which hasn't ended and most likely won't until another mass extinction occurs.

 

Chordata :

 

The Chordata is the animal phylum with which everyone is most intimately familiar, since it includes humans and other vertebrates.

 The Phylum Chordata includes the well-known vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals).

This phylum is probably the most notable phylum, as all human beings and  other animals and birds that are known to you, fall under this phylum. The most distinguishing character that all animals belonging to this phylum have is the presence of notochord.

 

 

Human evolution vs creation

 

Paleoanthropology

 

Paleoanthropology is the scientific study of human evolution.  In the past three decades, researchers have floated a number of ideas about how the story of human evolution have developed.

Human evolution story begins in an unknowable past and continues mysteriously for the next six million years. The story of human evolution must be very complicated despite enormous scientific work was carried out for the last many years. However, some people find the concept of human evolution troubling because it can seem not to fit with religious  beliefs. Nevertheless, many people have come to reconcile their beliefs with the scientific evidence.

The scientists had tried to prove that he man came into existence after passing

 through different stages that too in millions of years. It is also interesting to note that

 the theory of human evolution is based on study of fossils and assumptions.

The story began in Africa, between 5 mio. And 7 mio. years ago. The French Zoologist Jean de Lamarck , in 1809 presented his pioneering theory of evolution. When Darwin wrote his Origin of Species in 1859 he chose not to include his views on human evolution because of widespread resistance amongst Christians in case of  the evolution of man from animals . He waited 12 years to do its work before he published The Descent of Man (1871) in which he finally made public about human origins. He presented the theory of the Mechanism of Natural Selection or survival of the fittest. Darwin himself regarded his theory based on assumptions.  They suggest that man is descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped animal.

Darwin confidently claimed that all the evidence pointed to man sharing common ancestry with the apes. Darwin during his lifetime did not get support of fossil evidence for Human evolution

 

Darwin’s “evidence” in The Descent of Man for the common ancestry of man and apes consisted primarily of comparative anatomical, embryological, and behavioural arguments, rather than fossil evidence.

It is estimated that today over 250 million fossils have been found and catalogued, comprising about 250,000 species. Approximately 95% of all these fossils are marine invertebrates and of the remaining 4.70%, are algae and plants.  The vertebrates (animals with bones) comprise less than 0.25% of all fossils, and the vast majority of these are fish! Finally, primates (humans, apes, monkeys, and lemurs) comprise less than 0.001% of all vertebrate fossils. Under these circumstances it had difficult to assess the human evolution through fossil record. Given the nature of the fossil record it’s not surprising that human fossils are exceedingly rare.

 

Most creationists believe that essentially all of the fossils we see today were formed during and shortly after the global Flood that happened about 5000 years ago. They believe that most of the animals and plants have become extinct. (Global Flood during the life of Hazrat Nooh)

The zoologists, anthropologists and  paleoanthropologists  wrote so many books with the word "ape" in the title tells us two things. One is that the evidence is so adequate that people are free to frame their favourite hypothesis about evolution and existence of human. It was found by the scientists that chimpanzees and humans have a genetic kinship so close that they share almost 99% of their DNA.

Doubt created on the above findings

It is obvious that the entire theory is based upon the study of fossils found from time to time in different regions. The weakness of their theory is evident from the fact because of the fragmentary nature of evidences consisting of specimens of skulls and scattered bones. No where the scientists were able to find full size skeleton fossils of the body .

 However, the theory of human evolution further tells us that it starts with the following species  :

Homo habilis (“handy” man)

 Evolved in Africa sometime before 2 million years ago, went extinct in Africa by about 1.5 million years ago.
 By the middle of the 20th century, researchers were beginning to accept that humans evolved in Africa from an ancient group of “ape people” called the australopiths. In 1960, a research team at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania found fossil remains of a species that seemed to fall in the gap between the australopiths and humans. They named it Homo habilis – identifying it at the first true human species to evolve.

From the fragmentary fossils found, H. habilis seemed to have had a brain substantially larger than an australopith and more like that of later human speciesOne population of H. habilis might have evolved into the earliest indisputable human species – H. erectus. (Evidence from fragmentary fossils)

 Homo erectus (“upright man”)

Probably evolved in Africa about 2 million years ago, quickly expanded and spread across Eurasia. The date of its extinction is debated – recent estimates suggest it may have disappeared by 143,000 years ago.

Homo neanderthalensis (the Neanderthal)

Appeared in Eurasia roughly 200,000 years ago and went extinct there about 40,000 years ago.
Neanderthals are the most famous of all extinct human species, probably a consequence of the fact they were the first ancient human species to be discovered by scientists. – several decades before Darwin put forward his theory of evolution by natural selection.

Neanderthals are also the best known of extinct human species: researchers have now found bones from hundreds of Neanderthals in countries across Europe, the western Asia and central Asia.

Exactly when the line leading to H. sapiens split from the one leading to the Neanderthals is still being debated. Some recent research suggests the split happened more than a million years ago, with a Eurasian branch eventually evolving into the Neanderthals (and the Denisovans) while an African branch evolved into H. sapiens.

The Denisovans

 Still unclear, but possibly throughout eastern Asia between about 200,000 years ago and 50,000 years ago.
In fact, the Denisovans were “discovered” in a genetics lab.

Homo floresiensis (the “hobbit”)

 Known to have lived on the Indonesian island of Flores between about 100,000 and 50,000 years ago – an ancestral form of the species might have been present on the island at least 700,000 years ago.
 Homo floresiensis was, and continues to be, an evolutionary puzzle. It had a strange mix of features – a short body, unusually long feet, and a surprisingly tiny brain.

 H. floresiensis lived thousands of kilometres east of Africa, was alive just 50,000 years ago, and seems to have behaved like an advanced human in terms of its ability to control fire and cook food.

Homo naledi (“star man”)

 South Africa. No officially published data on the species’ age, but unofficial reports suggest it was alive between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago.
 A decade after scientists discovered H. floresiensis, another equally remarkable species was added to the human family tree. Homo naledi had a strange mix of features, with some parts of its skeleton indistinguishable from those of living people while other parts looked almost ape-like. It also had a brain little bigger than that of a chimpanzee, but seems to have been capable of sophisticated, modern human-like behaviour –

 One study published last year suggests it might sit on a branch very near the bottom, perhaps somewhere between H. habilis and H. erectus.

As such, many people anticipated that H. naledi lived at roughly the same time as H. habilis, and probably went extinct more than a million years ago as more advanced humans like H. erectus out competed it.

Homo sapiens (“wise man”, or “modern humans”)

 The species first appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago – began to move out of Africa at least 100,000 years ago and spread across the rest of the world.
 At a physical level, our species might not have looked very different from ancient human species like the Neanderthals – the two species even interbred. But the emotional and intellectual differences might go a long way to explain why all other ancient human species that survived to see modern humans went extinct within a few thousand years of first contact. By about 40,000 years ago, the last human species surviving on Earth. These kind of human must be wandering in different areas of the world.

 

Christian Assumptions about the Origin of Man

 

Most Bible-believing Christians in America believe that God created man and all other kinds of animals and plants in essentially their present form  by the power of His Word and Spirit. Thus, they believe, God created apes and God created men, but God did not create “ape-men” and apes didn’t change into man. There are, however, a substantial number of professing Christians who believe God used evolution to “create

 

Now, let us go to Islamic aspect of the human history which is based on creation.  Quran say’s  that  man is the climax of creation and is a unique creation of Allah. His gifted qualities are unmatched with any other living being. Islam says that Allah has created this universe and Humans with a specified goal.

In Quran 50 : 16 ,

 Allah say’s  " It was We ,Who created man, and We know what his soul whispers. We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein ".

Quran further  say’s

3 : 59 ,

The creation of Adam whom Allah  created out of dust, and then said: 'Be', and he was.

2 : 30 to 34

When Your Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent (A deputy appointed by the ruler) on earth."

They said: "Will You place there one who will make mischief and shed blood?- while we do celebrate Your praises and glorify Your holy (name)?"

He said: "I know what you do not know."

And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if you are right."

They said: "Glory to You, we have no knowledge except what you have given us. In reality it is You Who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom."

He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what you disclose and what you hide?"

And when, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down except Iblis: he refused and he became unbeliever.

Conclusion :

It is obvious that the theory of Human evolution is based on  assumptions  and on fragmentary fossils record. As found earlier that Human like generation was wandering on earth and they might not have the advanced and specialised brain as compare to created man.  They must be living like other animals but walking on two legs,  sometimes fighting each other, making mischief  and shedding blood.

According to my assumption the angels must have observed  the same.  And when they saw Adam, who was physically like the evolved  human on planet earth, they raised their concern  on his creation and told to Allah  :

"Will You place there one who will make mischief and shed blood ?   Allah said :

"I know what you do not know."


 It was certain that Adam was climax of creation and he was not like the same human who were evolved. I assume,  there is no clash between theory of evolution and theory of creation. Allah says about creation that  "It is We, Who created you from single person". It also points out that the beginning of man is  from an inorganic clay compound and successive generation from a despised fluid. Further in order to distinguish man from the other animals Allah breathed into him His spirit, capacity to write and speak. This is a Divine gift to Human being by the Almighty Allah. It is also assumed that  the rise of the first civilizations occurred within the past 12,000 years.

Quran confirmed that :

95 : 4 ,  Surely We created man in the best mould 

Man has been given the finest body which no other living being has been given, and he has been blessed with the noblest faculties of thought, knowledge and intellect which no other creature has been blessed with.

The modern classification of living humans is very straight forward, leaving no room for any confusion. Thanks to the success in arranging the human genome, there is now a consensus among scientists that there is only one living genus of humans (Homo), one species (sapiens), one subspecies (sapiens), and one race (human). This is certainly consistent with all humans sharing ancestry with one pair of human parents, Adam and Eve (hawwa)


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