After giving much thought to the issue of the marriages of the Prophet(saws), a review had become necessary to remove doubts from some people. Before we could go into the details we urge upon the people to bear in mind that the Prophet had led a spotless life and all his wives must be considered as mothers of the believers (Ummul Momineen).
His first marriage took place with a widow who was 40 years old and he was 25 years old .Next 25 years he was with only one wife. He lived in a society in which it was quite acceptable to have many wives. But the prophet remained devoted to his only wife for twenty-five years. When his first wife died,he married with another widow who was 65 years old and he was at his 50. Rest of his 10 marriages took place between his age of 56 to 61 years.
It is quite evident that he did not have more than one wife when he was young enough. Even in his middle age , when he started his mission , some influential people of Mecca gave him a proposal to marry any woman he likes , which he denied. It is absolutely clear that he had no desire to satisfy his personal needs.
When his mission was at its peak ,he had to go for more marriages with following reasons :
1. Some marriages were with the view to help the women whose husbands had been killed while they were defending their faith.
2. Others were with a view to cement relationships with devoted followers like Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him.
3. others were to build bridges with various tribes who were otherwise at war with the Muslims. When the prophet became their relative through marriage, their hostilities calmed down, and much bloodshed was averted.This means these marriages were totally political
1.KHADIJAH (ra) Bint KHAWILAD
When he was 25 he marrried for the first time with Khadijah who was 40 years and a widower who had married twice before this marriage. She died at the age of 65 .
Prophet Mohammad married her when he was 50 and she was 65 years old. She was a widow ,very poor and there was no body to care for her. This was the reason the Prophet married her.
The Prophet Mohammad (saws) married Aisha when she was 9 years old and he was 56.
He married her primarily for three reasons :
Aisha (ra) was born after her parents embraced Islam, therefore she was a born Muslim.
As a wife of the Prophet she was a close companion and acquired from him such knowledge that no woman has ever acquired. Aisha (ra) lived on almost fifty years after the passsing away of the Prophet (saws). Much of her time was spent in learning and acquiring knoledge of the two most important sources of Allah's guidance, the Quran and the Sunnah of Prophet. She became so perfect and so knowledgable that she had memorised around two thousand Hadis . It is the claim of the scholars of the Islam that without her half of the Ilme Hadis ( Knowledge of understanding of Hadis ) would have perished. That is why, even senior companions of the Prophet (saws) used to consult Aisha (ra) in resolving complicated issues. Many men and women came from far and wide to benefit from her knowledge. It was on her bed alone that the Prophet received Divine revelations (Wahi) several times. This had helped her in interpreting the verses of holy Quran. The life of Aishah (ra) is a proof that a woman can be more learned than men. May Allah grant her the highest place in Paradise .........Aameen
She was the daughter of Umar (ra) , the second caliph . When she became widow at the age of 22 , Umar (ra) tried to marry her with Abu Bakr(ra) and then with Osman (ra) but both of them refused to marry. Thereafter he went to the Prophet and complained about the behaviour of Ab u Bakr and Osman (ra). Later on the Prophet himself agreed to marry her. At the time of this marriage Mohammd (saws) was 56 and Hafsa was 22 years old.
5 .ZAYNAB (ra) BINT KHUZAYMA
She was 30 years old when her husband died in the battle of Badr , leaving her poor and with several children. She was the wife of Ubaydah bin Haris a faithful Muslim . Prophet Mohammad (saws) married her when he was 58 years of age. She was nicknamed Umm Al Masakeen because of her kindness and charity .She died 3 months after she married the Prophet 625 A.D.
6 . SALAMA ( ra ) BINT UMAYYA
Her husband, Abud Al Assad , died in uhad battle ,leaving Hind as a poor widow with many children. Hind was at least 65 years old at the time. Several persons asked her to marry them, but because she loved her husband very much, she refused the marry any one of them. But finally she accepted Prophet Mohammad's offer to marry her and take care of her children. At the time their marriage the Prophet was 58 years old.
7 .ZAYNAB ( ra ) BINT JAHSH :
She was the daughter of Prophet Mohammad's (saws) paternal aunt , Omameh Bint Abd Almutaleb. The prophet arranged her marriage with Zayed bin Haris ,who was the adopted son of the Prophet.This marriage did not last long and Zayed divorced Zaynab.Traditionally the adopted sons were counted as the real sons by the Arabs,but this tradition was eliminated by Islam. Mohammad's (saws) decision to marry Zayneb was an attempt to break the hold of pre-Islamic ideas. Initially he was reluctant to marry Zayneb,fearing public opinion . When Zayneb's waiting period was complete , Prophet Mohammad (saws) married her. The Prophet was 58 and Zayneb was 35 years old. A segment in Medina called as Hypocrites ( Munafiqeen) cricized the marriage and spread rumours in an attempt to divide the Muslims. However , the marriage was justified by Holy Quran ( Surah Ahzab No.33 ayat No. 37 ).
Her first husband's name was Masafeah Ibn Safuan and was divorcee / widow.The Prophet (saws) wanted Juwayria's tribe to convert to Islam. When Muslims won the battle of Al Mostalaq , Juwayria became the prisoner . Her father came to the Prophet and offered a payment for her release.In the mean time , the Prophet asked her father to give her a choice .When the choice was given to her, she replied that she wont go as she had accepted Islam. She was a complete devoted Muslim and used to fast three days in every month. Later, the Prophet (saws) married her and that time he was 59 years old . The marriage event had taken a political turn and her tribe of Bani Almostalag accepted Islam.
Safiyyah belonged to a Jewish tribe Banu Nadir . Her husband was killed when Muslims fought against her tribe. At that time she was 17 years old . The prophet married her when he was 61.Before the marriage she was offered to go back with her tribe but she said that she had accepted Islam. She had respected Prophet Muhammad (saws) as Allah's nlast Messenger. She took all the pains to look after him , care for him and provide every comfort to him.
She had married to Aubade Allah ,who became Muslim and then after some time converted to christianity. She was a good Muslim so she left her husband and lived with dignity till Mohammd (saws) marrried her. She was highly pleased to marry the Prophet. At the time of this marriage the age of the Prophet was 61 years , but her age is not known.
Her first husband was Abu Rahma . When Mecca was conquered , she came to the Prophet and proposed to marry him. This marriage had encouraged many Makkahans to accept Islam, secondly the Prophet also established good relations with the Makhzum ,his previously fierce opponents. The age of the Prophet was 60 and she was 36 years old.
12. MARIYA (ra) AL QIBTIYYA
She was also known as Mariyam Qibtiyya and was sent to the prophet as a gift . She had been raised in Egypt as a christian . When she reached Medina she had accepted Islam . Thereafter she married to the Prophet (saws) and was allotted a Garden house in upper Medina . The prophet had a son through her who was named as Ibrahim .She was loved and liked by all other wives of the Prophet . It was unfortunate that Ibrahim fell seriously ill and died when he was 18 months old.