Optional Salat (Sunnat and Nafil Salat or Namaz)
Surah Muzammil No.73 ,Ayats No. 1 to 4
يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُزَّمِّلُ
قُمِاللَّيْلَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
نِصْفَهُ أَوِ انقُصْ مِنْهُ قَلِيلًا
أَوْ زِدْعَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا
To wake up in the middle of the night to read Tahajjud is very beneficial. The Almighty Allah is very appreciative of such a namaaz.
The time for praying Salatul-Tahajjud is from midnight (the time which is exactly half between sunset and the actual dawn) to two hours before the rising of the sun. However, it is better to pray during the last part of the night near to the time of Fajr prayers.
Tahajjud Namaz does not have a specific number of rakats. It would be fulfilled even if one prayed just two rakats. However, one can recite Tahajjud upto twelve rakats .
2. Salate Ishraaq ( Namaze Ishraaq )
Two rakats or four rakats to be recited after sunrise (Approximately 20 minutes after sunrise). A person can remain seated after Fajr salat, keep reciting Quran or celebrate praises of Allah and then recite Ishraq salat. It has only 2 rakaats but it is having high merits of prayer.
Abu Hurairah (ra) relates that our Prophet (saws) has said that "He who says Ishraq prayers without fail shall have his lesser sins forgiven even though they may be as numerous as foam specks on the surface of the sea." (Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)
This salaah brings blessings equal to a Hajj or Umraah (Tirmidhi)
A person can also recite the Salate Ishraq after doing personal work also.
3. Salat e Chasht ( Namaze Chasht)
When the sun had risen high, the performance of 2 or 4 rakaahs is known as Chaasht. This is full of blessings.
4. Salate Awwabeen (Namaze Awwabeen)
This salat is recited after Salate Maghrib (after reciting sunnat), there are total 6 rakats with a multiple of 2 rakats each. Awwabin is a plural of awwab means one who is obedient.
Abu Hurairah Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam said that the performing of six rakats after Maghrib Farz Salat without indulging in any worldly affairs would derive reward equivalent to twelve years nafl prayers. (Sunan Tirmizi p.98 v.1)
When there are drought conditions and the people of a particular area need rains badly, one can supplicate for rains after reciting two rakats of Namaze Istesqa.
Narrated Abbas bin Tamim from his uncle who said,
"The Prophet went out to the Musalla to offer the Istisqa' prayer, faced the Qibla and offered two-Rakat prayer and turned his cloak inside out." Narrated Abu Bakr, "The Prophet put the right side of his cloak on his left side."
Volume 2, Book 17, Number 139: Sahi Bukhari Sharif
6. Tahiyatul Masjid
Tahiyatul Masjid is a highly recommended salat consisting of two rakaats and is performed after entering a mosque. It is also a way of greeting the place of worship.
On the authority of Abu Qatada (ra) he said, "The Messenger of Allah (saws) said: 'If any of you enter the Mosque, let him not sit until he prays two rakats.'" (Bukhari & Muslim]
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