Salaat Fundamentals
 
Before reciting Salaat, a person is required to pay due attention to the following :

I. Cleanliness of the body (Jism ki Paaki):

Once the person takes a bath, he must avoid any dirty stains of urine, stool (to observe Taharat) blood or pus on his body and clothes .

When he or she is clean, the very first thing to perform is Ablution (Wuzu)

Ablution ( Wuzu )

Surah No. 5, Al Maaeda, Part of Ayat No. 6


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى

الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ


Translation :


O Believers ! When you prepare for prayer (Salat) wash your faces and your hands to the elbows ; Rub your head with water and wash your feet to the ankles .

Comments :

Ablution (Wuzu) is required to be done when a person is going to perform salaat or recite Quran. It remains valid upto 24 hours but it is nullified if blood or pus is drawn, if one urinates, passes gas through anus or passes stool or falls into sleep.

How to perform the Wuzu is mentioned below in one of the Hadis :

Hadis No.1.142, Sahi Bukhari :

"Narrated `Ata bin Yasar: Ibn `Abbas (ra), "I saw Allahs Apostle (saws) performing ablution (wuzu) in this way."

He took handful of water, rinsed his mouth and washed his nose with it by putting water in and then blowing it out.

He then, took another handful of water and washed his face.

He took another handful of water and washed his right forearm. He again took another handful of water and washed his left forearm.

He then passed wet hands over his head.

He then took another handful of water and poured it over his right foot up to his ankles and washed it thoroughly and similarly took another handful of water and washed thoroughly his left foot up to the ankles.

What are the Obligatory things in Wuzu

1. Washing the face

2. Washing both hands to the elbows

3. Passing Wet hands over his head

4. Washing both feet to the ankles

What are the sunnah (Sunnat) in Wuzu

     1. Say : Bismillah hir Rahman nir Rahim

     2. Brushing the teeth with Siwak (Miswak)

3. Cleaning the nose with water and blowing it

4. Washing each part thrice


     II. Cleanliness of clothes
  
      No stains of urine, blood, feces and secretion from the wound on the clothes
 

III . Cleanliness of the place of Salaat (Namaz)


    IV . Covering of Satr
    For men: covering the body including the knees and for women covering the whole body from head to the  ankles excluding feet, hands upto wrists and face

   v.  Precautions in Salat ( Namaz ) :


( Do not join prayer in drunken state )


Surat No.4 , An Nisa , Ayat No. 43


o يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى

Translation :


O believers ! Do not approach prayer ( Namaz) when you are drunken, till you know what you say .


( Do not join prayer when polluted )


Surat No.4 , An Nisa , Ayat No. 43

o حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلاَ جُنُبًا إِلاَّ عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىَ تَغْتَسِلُو

Translation :

When you are polluted, do not approach prayer till you have bathed.


( Must pray at fixed time )


Surah No. 4 , An Nisa , Ayat No. 103


o إِنَّ الصَّلاَةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا

Translation :


Worship at fixed times has been enjoined on the believers

    VI . Offering Salaat (Namaz) at prescribed time.

Quran has confirmed five salaats at different timing in the day. Following are the references in holy Quran with regard to timings of five Salaats (Namazen):

Prescribed time of five salaats


Surah No. 2, Al-Baqar Ayat No. 238

 

o حَافِظُواْ عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ والصَّلاَةِ الْوُسْطَى وَقُومُواْ لِلّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Translation :


Safeguard your Prayer regularly, especially the middle prayer “( Asr )

 
Surah No.11, Hud Ayat No.114

وَأَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهَارِ وَزُلَفًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ إِنَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ يُذْهِبْنَ السَّـيِّئَاتِ

o ذَلِكَ ذِكْرَى لِلذَّاكِرِينَ

Translation :

Attend your prayer at the two ends of the day and some hours of night “ (Fajar, Maghrib and Isha)

Surah No. 17, Bani Israel Ayat No. 78

أَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Translation :

Establish prayer at the decline of the sun till the darkness of the night (Asr, Maghrib and Isha) and keep recital of the Quran in the morning prayer “ (Fajar)

Hadis :

Narrated by Ibne Abbas (ra): "The Prophet (saws) had initially recited Namaz for two consequent days which was guided by Hazrat Jibraeel.

First day – Zohar was recited immediately after the decline of the sun and then Asar was recited when the shadow of an object became equal to its size. Maghrib was immediately after the sun set, Isha was when the glow of the sun set disappeared and finally Fajar, before the sun rise.

Second day – Zohar was  recited when the shadow became equal to the size of an object, Asar when shadow became double the size of an object, Maghrib after the sunset, Isha when 1/3 rd night passed away and Fajar when light of the day started appearing

( Tirmizi and Abu Dawood )

 
Surah No.20, Taha Ayat No. 130

فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا وَمِنْ

o آنَاء اللَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْ وَأَطْرَافَ النَّهَارِ لَعَلَّكَ

Translation :


Bear patiently what they say, and celebrate the praises of your Lord before rising of sun (Fajar) and before its setting (Asar) and hours of night (Isha) and at the sides of the day “(Fajar and Maghrib)

 
Surah No. 30, Room Ayat No. 17-18


وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ o فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ

o وَعَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ

Translation :

So glorify Allah when you are in the evening (Maghrib prayer) and when you enter the morning (Fajr prayer).

And to Him all the praises and thanks in the heavens and the earth and glorify Him in the afternoon (Zohr prayer) and when you come upto the decline of the day (Asr prayer)

VII . Qiblah for Salat (Direction of Prayer)


Surah No. 2, Al Baqr, Ayat No. 144


قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاء فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ

الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّواْ وُجُوِهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوْتُواْ الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ

o الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

Translation :


(O Mohammad {saws}) We have seen the turning of your face to heaven (sky) again and again. And now We are giving you that Qiblah (direction of prayer) which is dear to you. So turn your face towards the Holy Mosque of Worship, and you (O Believers), where ever you may be, turn your faces (when you pray) towards it. In fact, those who have received the Scripture know that (this revelation) is the Truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.

Surah No. 2, Al Baqr, Ayat No. 149

وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّهُ لَلْحَقُّ مِن

o رَّبِّكَ وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Translation :


And from anywhere you happen to lead (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Masjid-e-Haram (at Makkah), this is indeed the truth from your Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.


Surah No. 2, Al Baqr, Ayat No. 115

o وَلِلّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Translation :

To Allah belong the east and the West: Which ever direction you turn, there is the presence of Allah. For Allah is all-embracing and all-Knowing.

Comments :

In case a person is not able to find the direction of Ka'aba or if he is sick and is not able to face towards Ka'aba then he can pray in any direction.

Ahadis :

Volume 2, Book 20, Number 198: Sahi Bukhari Sharif

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amir from his father who said:

I saw the Prophet (p.b.u.h) offering the prayer on his mount (Rahila) whatever direction it took.

Volume 2, Book 20, Number 199: Sahi Bukhari Sharif

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah,

The Prophet used to offer the Nawafil, while riding, facing a direction other than that of the Qibla.

 

Surah No.2,surah Al Baqr ,Ayat No.125

وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

Translation :

Remember We made the House, a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take you the station of Ibrahim, as a place of prayer; and We commanded Ibrahim and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who encompass it, or sit in meditation (E`tekaf), or bow and prostrate themselves (Before Me).

  VIII : Salat in Congregation
 To recite Salat ( Namaz ) in congregation

Surah No.2 , Al Baqr , Ayat No.43

o وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُواْ مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

Translation :

Establish salat and pay zakaat and bow down along with those who bow-down .


Comments :

 

Question#:

615

Question Date:

2/5/1997

Topic :

Jama'a (or GROUP -not Friday-) prayer: Mandatory?

Question:

Asalamu Alakum A hadis was told to me about the Prophet (saws) saying that when the call for azan is made,he (saws) would order someone to lead the prayer and leave from the back. Then he would gather fire wood and burn the houses of those who didn't come to the prayer, I believe that this was the Isha prayer. The person who told this hadis to me had it interpetated as group salat is mandatory. Is this correct? If it is do you commit a sin for making your prayer alone?

Answer:

Dear Br. A. As-Salaamu Alaykum. Regarding your question, the Islamic Scholars have different opinions about the Jamat prayer.

Some of them say : It is mandatory to every man, and any man who does not perform it in Group actually committs and sin.

Another part of Muslim Scholars say that it s a Fard Kifaya, which means that if some people perform it collectively, then the other ones don't have to do it.

And a third group said that GROUP prayer is only a Sunnat.

Each group has its legitimate proofs which we will expose to you.

The first opinion (Mandatory) is for the Hanbali school who bases its opinion on the verse of the Qur'an in An-Nisaa, verse 102. (please refer to it in the Qur'an, it is a long verse to type). The Hanbali school says that if this verse obligates Group prayers which are prescribed even in the case of fear during war, then,it should be mandatory when the fear factor is not existing. Also al-Baqarah, verse 43, Allah says :...'and bow down yourselves along with those who are bowing down', and in Al-Imran, verse 43. In this context, bowing down is an order which shows that group prayer is obligatory. The Hanbali also base their opinions on the hadis of prophet Mohammad (pbuh) burning the houses of those who don't attend the group prayers.

The second opinion, which says that if a group of people do it, then the rest of people don't have to, is the opinion of the Shafi'i school, that says that GROUP prayer is one of the symbols of Islam.

The third opinion which says that it is a Sunnat, The Hanafi and Maliki schools prescribe to it. They base their opinion on the fact that Prophet Mohammad (saws) encouraged the group prayer and said that its reward is higher than the person who prays alone, but didn't impose it. This is based on the occasion that when two Muslims told him that they prayed in Rihalina (in their homes), he didn't blame them, otherwise, he would have done it if it was mandatory.

1 -The conclusion about this is that Group prayer is one of the symbols of Islam.

2-A person who is able to do it should perform it collectively unless he has a legitimate reason.

3- If he prays on his own, he is not committing a sin, but he would be neglecting a Sunnat of Prophet Mohammad (saws) that is very authentic.

Thank you for asking and God knows best.

Reference:

IslamiCity

By www.pakistanlink.com

Q 5. Can a husband and wife pray together as a Jama’ah? How to perform such prayer? Please explain.

Answer : Jama'at prayer can be performed by two or more people. The minimum requirement of Jama’ah is two people, an Imam and another person, whether a man, woman or child. It is very good that the whole family pray together, especially where the mosques are few and are situated at a large distance ,most people do not get chance to pray in Jama’at every day. Husband and wife can also make a Jama’at prayer. It is reported by Imam Abu Da’ud that the Prophet -peace be upon him- said, “Whoever wakes up during the night and also awakens his wife and then both of them pray together two rak’at prayer, their names will be written among ‘those men and women who remembered Allah most’ .”

If there are two males praying together in Jama’at then one of them will be Imam and the other person should stand one step behind at the right side of the Imam, but if the husband and wife are praying together then the wife should stand behind the husband. In case a male and a female - who are not married to each other or who are not mahram are not allowed to pray together in Jama’at.

Question#:
4346

Question Date:
1/1/1995

Topic :
Congregation: Its obligatory status

Question:
What are the rules for holding a congregational prayer? How do worshipers stand? What is the advantage of praying in a congregation? Is it compulsory to form a congregation?

Answer:
To pray in a congregation i.e. with jama'ah is a distinctive aspect of Islamic worship. Many scholars consider that holding a congregational prayer and joining congregational prayers is compulsory for all Muslims. Allah says in the Qur'an; "Bow down with those who bow down." This is a clear reference to prayer. If it was not a duty, we would have been given a concession not to pray in congregation when we are in a state of fear. Allah, however, has changed the requirements of prayer in such state without canceling its congregational aspect. It does not mean, that every Muslims must offer every single obligatory prayer in a congregation. It means that the holding of a congregational prayer is an obligation of the community and it is also obligatory on every individual to be keen in congregation prayer whenever possible. Such attendance is indeed a marking of strong faith. From the literature of early Islamic periods, we can conclude that a person was considered good if he regularly offered his obligatory prayer with the congregation in the mosque. Moreover, offering a prayer in a congregation enhances our reward. The Prophet says that praying with the congregation earns 27 times the reward of the same prayer offered individually. Since every one of us is always in need of greater reward from Allah, we should be keen to offer our obligatory prayers in the mosque with the congregation. The Prophet also recommends us to offer obligatory prayers at home, so that our homes are not denied the blessings of prayer. The minimum number of worshipers required for congregation is two, one of whom should be the imam. If there are only two worshipers, the imam stands a little ahead and the other person stands to his right. If there are more than two, then the imam stands on his own and the other worshipers, stand in a row, leaving a distance which is sufficient for them to do their prostration. If one row is complete and a second row is to be formed, it starts at the point exactly behind the imam and worshipers stand to the imam's right and left, in a balanced way. Every new line starts in the same way, right behind the imam. But it should have at least two people. If the last line is complete, the next one cannot be started by one person only. He either pulls one of the people in the last row back so that they could form a new line or he should wait until another person comes in to join the prayer. In a congregational prayer, the worshipers follow the imam without leaving any gap between his movement and theirs. When he gives the signal for the next movement, all worshipers follow suit. [Care must be taken not to advance your action in anticipation of that signal for the next movement].

Reference:
Arab News

Farz During the Salat

To begin salat with Takbeer Tahrima (First Takbeer saying Allaho Akbar)

Qiyam in every rakat (To be stationed at one place)

Qirat (Reciting Quran in all the rakats)

Ruku in every rakat

Two Sijdahs in every rakat

Akhri Qa'edah (Sitting in last rakat)

Salaam (To end the salat).

Wajib in Salaat (Namaz)

To recite a Surah or at least one large ayat or three small ayats in first two rakats of Farz and all the rakats of other salaats (namaz) after surah Fatiha.

To observe sequence (all actions)

To observe Qauma (standing in straight position after ruku)

To observe Jalsah (Sitting straight between two sijdahs)

To observe Qa'eda Oola.(Sitting after two rakats when Attahiyyat is recited)

To raise hands with Takbeer and recite Dua-e- Qunoot in the last rakat of Witr.

Sunnat in Salat (Namaz)

To raise hands and turn palms towards Qibla before Takbeer Tahrimah. For males to ear lobes. For female shoulder level.

To keep the head erect while pronouncing Takbeer Tahrimah.

To tie hands properly after Takbeer Tahrimah.

To recite Sana (Thana)

To pronounce Auooz.

To recite Bismillah hir Rahman nir Rahim

To recite Ameen (silently) after Surah Fatiha.

To pronounce tasbih at least thrice in ruku (Sub hana Rabbiyal Azeem) and in sijdah (Sub hana Rabbiyal aala)

To perform sijdah one should rest the knees first, followed by two hands, then nose and at last forehead.

Types of Salats

       1. Farz: obligatory prayer

2. Wajib: obligatory prayer (Denying a Farz makes one a non-Muslim but denying a Wajib makes one a sinner)
3. Sunnat & Nafil : Prophet's tradition, Optional

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