31. Ashura Day
FASTING ON THE DAY OF 'ASHURA (10TH OF MOHARRAM)
Fasting on Moharram 10, known as the Day of 'Ashura', expiates for the sins of the past year. When the Prophet (saws) was in Mecca he found that Quraish used to fast on the day of 'Ashura in the pre-Islamic days and the Messenger ot Allah (saws) also observed it.
When the Prophet (saws) arrived in Madinah in 622 CE, he found that the Jews fasted on Moharram 10 and asked them the reason for their fasting on this day. They said," This is a blessed day. On this day Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy (in Egypt) and so Prophet Musa [Moses] who fasted on this day giving thanks to Allah." The Prophet (saws) said, "We are closer to Musa than you are." He fasted on that day and commanded Muslims to fast on this day. The Messenger of Allah (saws) also said: Insha Allah, we would observe fast on the 9th of Moharram and 10th of Moharram. Since it was a desire of the prophet the followers do observe fast on 9th of Moharram as a sunnah. However, 10th of Moharram remains fasting day of Ashura and 9th of Moharram fast will be an additional fast .
I could not find any authentic Hadis for fasting on 11th of Moharram.If someone finds it, then please let me know along with name of Hadis book, its book number and hadis number etc. at " email@example.com"
The following year, Allah commanded the Muslims to fast the month of Ramadan, and the fasting of 'Ashura' became optional.
The Prophet (saws) said, "Fasting the day of 'Ashura' Allah will accept it as an expiation for minor sins committed in the previous year." .
Book 006, Sahih Muslim :
Hadis No. : 2499
Hazrat 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that the Quraish used to fast on the day of 'Ashura in the pre-Islamic days and the Messenger ot Allah (may peace be upon him) also observed it. When he migrated to Medina, he himself observed this fast and commanded (others) to observe it. But when fasting during the month of Ramadan was made obligatory he said: He who wishes to observe this fast may do so, and he who wishes to abandon it may do so.
Book No.31 Sahaih Bukhari
Hadis no. 117
Narrated 'Aisha: (The tribe of) Quraish used to fast on the day of Ashura' in the Pre-lslamic period, and then Allah's Apostle ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet said, "He who wants to fast (on 'Ashura') may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast."