17. To be Just and also favour Justice
Surah No. 4, An Nisa, Ayat No. 135
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاء لِلّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَى أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ
وَالأَقْرَبِينَ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقَيرًا فَاللّهُ أَوْلَى بِهِمَا فَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ الْهَوَى أَن تَعْدِلُواْ وَإِن تَلْوُواْ
o أَوْ تُعْرِضُواْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا
O believers! Be you firm on justice, whatever may be the situation, even it is against yourself, your parents or your relatives, you be the witnesses for Allah, whether (the case be of) a rich man or a poor man, Allah is nearer to both of them than you. So follow not your desires against implementing justice. If you say without keeping things in order then Allah is well Informed about what you do.
Surah No. 5, Al Maaeda, Ayat No. 8
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ لِلّهِ شُهَدَاء بِالْقِسْطِ وَلاَ يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَى
o أَلاَّ تَعْدِلُواْ اعْدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ إِنَّ اللّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ
O believers! Be firm on witnesses as evidence of justice for the sake of Allah, and let not the enimity of any people to deviate you from justice. But you be on justice in every situation, that is nearer to attain piety. Keep away from disobedience of Allah ; surely ! Allah is Informed of what you do.
Surah No. 2, Al Baqr, Ayat No. 178
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ
وَالأُنثَى بِالأُنثَى فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاء إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ
o ذَلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
O you who believe! Law of equality is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. If the murderer is forgiven by the brother of the slain by accepting the blood shed money then the killer can pay this, which will reduce his burden. This is a mercy from your Lord. But even after this whosoever transgress, he will be in grave penalty.
In pre-Islamic Arabia people tried to take blood revenge upon the murderer's family and whole tribe. Their desire for revenge was not suppressed merely by putting the murderer to death. They preferred to kill tens and even hundreds of people to avenge the one life they had lost. If a respected member of their tribe was killed by an ordinary member of another, it was not nough to put to death the actual murderer. They preferred to kill a man of the murderer's tribe equal in standing to the victim, and even several members of the murderer's tribe. Same was the case in respect of slaves and women wherein not only the murderer was used to be punished but the large number of people the tribe used to suffer.
Surprisingly, this attitude is not confined to the Ignorance of that bygone age. Even today those nations that are supposedly the most civilized have the same attitude. For instance, if one of their citizens is killed they will execute scores of the killer's companions to take revenge of the victim.
Allah had therefore revealed in this verse , His perfect decree with regard to the punishment of the murderer only